Capella University Adult Development Theories Paper Applying Adult Development Theories The purpose of this assignment is to apply an appropriate theory t

Capella University Adult Development Theories Paper Applying Adult Development Theories

The purpose of this assignment is to apply an appropriate theory to analyze a realistic scenario and to suggest alternative resolutions in line with the quality of life choices of those involved.

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Review the Applying Adult Development Theory, Part 3 scenario For this assignment, you will need to take two additional steps: This is highlighted below

Incorporate the discussion feedback that you received or that you saw others receive to improve your analysis and application.
Address the additional dimension of cultural or ethnic differences. Choose any culture or ethnic background with which you are familiar. Change the names of the characters to Maya and Eddie (to allow for a broader range of cultures). In addition to the analysis and application that you have already done, expand on any other issues posed by their backgrounds within this prevailing culture in the United States. Describe how their backgrounds are likely to influence their expectations, preferences, and ultimate choices, and explain how a professional working with them might factor these considerations into his or her work to assist them.

Adult Development Theory

The lifespan development theory aids in explaining the behaviors from the scenario. The theory addresses age-related experiences from birth through the entirety of human life (Baltes, Staudinger & Lindenberger, 2007). Also, it takes into consideration the lifelong accumulation that results from gains or losses. For instance, some individuals in the scenario have had successful careers and partners, which can be regarded as gains while the illnesses and death of partners are losses.

Which theoretical constructs can be applied to this scenario to identify behaviors and outcomes?

The theory also suggests that lifespan has different trajectories, which can be categorized into positives, negatives, and stability. The trajectories directly impact on the biological, psychological, social, and cultural behaviors. The biological is associated with the aging of cells leading to weaker immunity, thus easily prone to age-related diseases. Social and cultural behavior affects how individuals relate with friends or families. Depending on the individuals, cultural practices that used to interest them may no suit them. However, according to the theory, not all individuals develop and age at the same rate, where some are slow while others are rapid. As a result, aging begins at the cellular level, as explained by different biological theories, thus influencing psychological and social development changes.

Which specific elements of your theory are not applicable to this scenario to identify behaviours and outcomes?

There are elements of the theory that do not apply to the scenario. First, the degree to which early attributes vary through life, such as the development of some of the age-related diseases. In some instances, illnesses such as cancer, although prevalent in older people, the condition can also develop during the early stages of life. Also, the idea that the stability state is resistant to changes.

How do the gender influence in this scenario elicit results that may differ from a scenario that does not incorporate gender issues in the analysis

The scenario compares men’s and women’s pathways in adulthood by analyzing the role of transitioning from education, work, marriage life, and parenthood and how they influence the development stages. The results indicate the relevance of marriage and family in the transitioning for both women and men. This may differ for the analysis, which does not address the gender issues. Also, from the scenarios, the wife takes care of the husband or vice versa, thus providing psychological support.

References

Baltes, P. B., Staudinger, U. M., & Lindenberger, U. (2007). Lifespan psychology: Theory and application to intellectual functioning. Annual review of psychology, 50(1), 471-507.

Latrenda Ware

RE: Adult Development Theory

COLLAPSE

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Good morning. This is a very well written and informative post. You did an awesome job determining which theoretical constructs did and did not apply to this scenario. When dealing with lifespan development theories I have always wondered how much the cultural variances across the globe are taken into account. Is the development the same, are the milestones universal, and how much does socio economic status come into play? Great job and have a wonderful day.

REPLY QUOTE

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6 days ago

Sametris Ferguson

RE: Adult Development Theory

COLLAPSE

Top of Form

Jorge, your post was informative. In this scenario, Addie is 12 years younger that her husband Mel. It’s rreported that Mel was in poor health and had a part-time caregiver prior to his fall. It does not sspecify what health issues Mel had but it could very well be age related. Addie is also showing signs of forgetfulness while at work that is causing her to be snappy with customers. The working memory is necessary to complete tasks. It is actively holding information and simultaneously using this information (Cavanaugh & Blanchard-Fields, 2019). If Addie is going be caring for her husband, it is important that his part of her memory if functioning adequately.

Cavanaugh, J. C., & Blanchard-Fields, F. (2019). Adult development and aging (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage.

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Note: Keep in mind that the purpose of this paper is to apply your knowledge of theory rather than to simply express opinions.

Review the transcript highlighted below. Then, provide a theory that explains the behaviors in this scenario based on the following guiding questions:

Which theoretical constructs can be applied to this scenario to identify behaviors and outcomes?
Which specific elements of your theory are not applicable to this scenario?
How do the gender influences in this scenario elicit results that may differ from a scenario that does not incorporate gender issues in the analysis?

The paper you submit should adhere to at least the following APA formatting conventions:

APA title page.
Three pages in length, double-spaced, not including the title page.
Level one headings in APA format.

Addie and Mel have been married for 46 years and live in the home they purchased shortly after their marriage. They have three children who do not live in the area. Addie, a retired teacher, has a part-time job at a crafts store. She is well-liked at the store, but lately, co-workers have noticed that she is becoming forgetful and that she occasionally snaps at customers. Mel, also a retired teacher, is 12 years older than Addie and in poor health. Last year, he had a stroke that imited his mobility. A home health care nurse has been helping Mel several times a week, but these visits are going to be terminated soon because of insurance issues.

Recently, Mel fell while walking to the bathroom and suffered a head injury. Addie was at Bible study at the time and did not discover him until several hours later. Mel was lucky to survive the trip to the hospital, and he remains hospitalized and unable to speak. Addie plans to quit her job so she can provide him with constant care. The situation has sparked the attention of a hospital patient rights advocate, who is concerned that Addie will not be able to provide Mel with the care he needs.

Leslie’s Office Scene

Leslie’s office at the hospital. She is on the phone with Gary at the beginning of the scene; the phone call is shown with split screens. Then the phone call ends, and Addie enters the office.

Leslies: Hello, Mr. Holland?

Gary: This is Gary Holland.

Leslie: My name is Leslie Aoki, and I am a patient’s rights advocate at Methodist Hospital. Please do not be alarmed – your father’s condition has not changed. But I am calling because I am concerned about the situation.

Gary: I am concerned too. And so are my sisters.

Leslie: May I ask what you are concerned about?

Gary: I really hate to say this, but I do not know if my mother should be taking care of my father anymore. Not after this accident. I do not know what our options are, but I think he needs to be in some kind of facility.

Leslie: Why do you think your father needs to be in a facility?

Gary: Well, look what happened. We are lucky he is still alive. And my mother… well, even if she were home with him full time, she has just not as alert as she used to be. I know she is having problems at work because she forgets things and snaps at customers. She has never been like that before, ever.

Leslie: Does your mother want to continue to be his main caregiver?

Gary: She insists. (pauses and sighs, maybe gets choked up) This is really hard for her. Hard for all of us, but especially for my mother. They have been together for so long and she cannot imagine not being able to take care of him until the day he dies. I do not know what to do.

Leslies: I know this is a difficult situation for you. I am assuming that you and your sisters have discussed this? Do they agree with you that your father needs to be in a facility?

Gary: They do. Nobody wants him to be in a home. But we want him to be safe.

Leslie: Well, I am about to meet with your mother to hear what she thinks about the situation. I will call you back soon with more information, okay? And please let your sisters know that I am available to talk with them as well about any concerns they have about your father’s care. It is to everyone’s benefit that we all communicate.

Gary: Of course. Thank you for calling.

Leslie: Thank you for speaking with me. And hang in there. We are going to do everything we can to get your parents the resources they need.

(Knock on door. Leslie stands, shakes hands with Addie and sits down. Addie walks in, shakes hands with Leslie, and sits down on chair as indicated by Leslie.)

Leslie: Come on in, Mrs. Holland! I am Leslie Aoki. It is nice to meet you.

Addie: (polite but a little defensive) Nice to meet you. What is this about?

Leslie: Mrs. Holland, I know it is a difficult time for you. How are you holding up?

Addie: I am fine. A little bit tired, but fine. We have been through tougher times than this.

Leslie: And how is your husband?

Addie: He is still not speaking. But the doctors think he is going to be able to go home by the end of the month.

Leslie: That is good to hear. Have you thought about your care options when he comes home from the hospital?

Addie: My daughter is going to take some time off. She is going to fly in and stay with us for a few weeks to help.

Leslie: Oh. Well, I am glad you are going to get some help. Do you think you will be able to care for him after she leaves?

Addie: Absolutely. I am going to quit my job so I can be with Mel full time.

Leslie: That is going to be a lot of work. How do you feel about that?

Addie: I will do whatever I need to do. My husband is my first obligation.

Leslie: I can tell that you feel that way. Your willingness to give up your job indicates how serious you are about helping him.. May I ask though — how do you feel about quitting your job?

Addie: (pauses) To tell you the truth, I certainly will miss working at the craft store. We do not really need the money. But I have worked all my life and I enjoy it.

Leslie: What is it you enjoy about work?

Addie: I like being able to talk to people all day. It makes me feel young. But that is not as important as taking care of my husband. I am going to have to give up my Bible study and my exercise class too, but that is okay. I promised him I would be there in sickness and in health.

Leslie: Mrs. Holland, taking care of someone who needs 24-hour care is a daunting task. It is obvious to me that you take the role of caregiver very seriously. I wonder what that looks like to you? Maybe we could discuss other options for caring for your husband?

Addie: (pause) I would be willing to talk about other options. But I am not going to send my husband away. It is my job to take care of him.

REVIEW – APPLYING ADULT DEVELOPMENT THEORIES: PART I

Learning how to apply adult development theories to real situations is an important skill. Adult develop theories are tools. You can use these tools to help assess the current needs and predict the future needs of your clients. In the following scenario, you will observe the process of applying biological adult development theories to a client’s situation.

Nancy, 81, has lived alone in her home for the past decade since her husband passed away. Her two children, who live out of state, have become increasingly concerned about Nancy’s ability to take care of herself. Donna, Nancy’s daughter, has come to visit.

Nancy’s Kitchen Scene

Donna: Mom? How long has this grocery bag been sitting on the counter? This cottage cheese smells like it’s gone bad.

Nancy: Oh dear. Well, I just bought those groceries yesterday.

Donna: No, Mom, This food’s been sitting her for awhile. I am really worried about you, Mom. You’ve been forgetting about things.

Nancy: You’re overreacting. It’s just some cottage cheese.

Donna: It’s not just the groceries, Mom. Paul and I are really worried about you. I mean, look at those bruises on your arm. Did you fall again?

Nancy: I just stumbled on the top step and banged my arm on the door. It’s not a big deal.

Donna: Mom, you have osteoporosis. You could really hurt yourself if you fell. Plus with your asthma – what if you have an attack?

Nancy: Donna, I’ve had asthma since I was 12 years old. I know how to take care of it. And that nurse comes by twice a week to check on me.

Donna: I know, Mom. But I do not think twice a week is enough. We’re worried that you are going to forget to take your medication. Mom, I know you do not want to hear it, but Paul and I are worried sick about you. Don’t you think you’d feel safer if we moved you to an assisted living facility?

Nancy: You want to “move me” to an assisted living facility? Am I a piece of furniture?

Donna: No, Mom. I didn’t mean it that way.

Nancy: You and your brother need to stop talking to me like I am a child. I am an adult and I am your mother. I’ve lived here for 10 years by myself and I am perfectly capable of taking care of myself.

Donna: Mom, we love you! We’re just trying to help.

NANCY: I do not need help, dear. I am going to the store to buy some more cottage cheese.

Steve’s Office Scene

The next day, Donna meets with a social worker at Parkwood Home Care Services.

Steve: Mrs. Beckman, thank you for coming in. I am Steve Franklin. I am a social worker here at Parkwood Home Care Services.

Donna: Thank you so much for meeting with me.

Steve: I understand that you have some concerns about your mother. I see that we currently have a nurse visiting with her twice a week. Do you think we should schedule more frequent visits?

Donna: I do. But to tell you the truth, I do not think my mother should be living alone anymore. My brother and I have tried to talk her into assisted living, and she just refuses.

Steve: Why do you think your mother needs to move to assisted living?

Donna: I just do not think she’s physically capable of living alone. She has serious osteoporosis. She fell last year and bruised her wrist pretty bad, and I am afraid of what happens. And she’s always had bad asthma. If she has an attack, I do not think we can count on her being able to treat herself.

Steve: How is her mental health?

Donna: That’s the thing. A few months ago, her doctor said she was showing early signs of dementia. And I can see it. She’s forgetting to do all kinds of things. I wish I understood more about the physical changes that happen to people when they age. I’ve been reading all this stuff on the Internet about adult development theory and cellular changes, and it’s really confusing.

Steve: Well, if you’d like, I can explain some of the biological theories of aging.

Donna: Would you mind? I know that seems like an odd request, but I think I would feel more empowered if I understood these theories better!

Steve: Sure. Well, a lot of research on aging shows that there’s a link between the death of cells and the aging process. One theory is called “wear and tear” theory. That just means that cells wear out over time, and that our bodies do not function as well as our cells wear out. Another theory of how this works is called “programmed cell death,” which means that cells can only divide for a given period of time. Once cells can’t divide anymore, some of them start to die, and that intensifies aging. Does that make sense?

Donna: Sure.

Steve: There’s another theory about cellular changes that has to do with the cross-linking of proteins and collagen. I know that sounds a little confusing, but basically this has to do with muscle strength. As people age, there’s a breakdown in the way that protein interacts with the collagen in muscles. This can cause muscles to get stiff and deteriorate.

Donna: That makes sense.

Steve: Then there’s something called “free radical theory” Do you know what free radicals are?

Donna: I am not sure.

Steve: Well, in a nutshell, free radicals are atoms and molecules in the body that have the potential to damage cells. As people age, the number of free radicals in the body increases. The theory is that free radicals can damage proteins and cell membranes, and this contributes to the effects of aging.

Donna: I also read about something called “rate of living” theory. Can you explain that?

Steve: Sure. “Rate of living” theory is about the amount of energy a person is able to use over her lifetime. The theory is that people are born with the ability to produce and use a finite amount of energy. Once we use up our lifetime energy quota, well, that’s all we get.

Donna: OK. Well, thank you so much for explaining these theories to me. Could you tell me how these theories apply to my mother’s health?

Steve: Well, we do not know for sure how these theories apply to a specific situation. There’s a big difference between a theory and a medical diagnosis. But we can use these theories to get some insight into your mother’s quality of life. One area of concern I have is that your mother already has advanced osteoporosis. As I’ve said, there are a number of aging theories that say that cells and muscles stop functioning as well as people age. So if your mother is already at risk of falling because of her osteoporosis, this risk is likely to increase as she ages because of deteriorating muscles.

Donna: Wow.

Steve: Also, something to think about is that cell deterioration takes place in the brain as well, which can contribute to the signs of dementia you’ve been seeing.

Donna: What about my mother’s asthma? Can that get worse as she ages?

Steve: Quite possibly. Cells are everywhere in the body, so all the vital functions and organs are affected by aging, including the lungs.

Donna: I appreciate you sharing this information with me. But this is all very scary.

Steve: Well, like I said, keep in mind that we’re talking about aging theories. Your mother is an individual with specific health concerns and quality of life issues. I would recommend we make an appointment in your mother’s home while you are still in town to discuss her care options.

REVIEW – APPLYING ADULT DEVELOPMENT THEORIES: PART II

In the previous scenario, you observed the process of applying adult development theories to a scenario. In this exercise, you will practice the skill of applying adult develop theory. After watching two scenarios, you will be asked a series of questions. These questions will prompt you to analyze the case studies using social aging theories.

Case Study 1: Sheldon

Sheldon and Sarah have been married for over 50 years and are now in their mid-eighties. Their daughter lives in another state and visits infrequently. Although Sheldon has advanced bone cancer, he is in good spirits and takes daily walks. Sheldon and Sarah drive themselves to their doctor appointments and to the grocery store. Once active in their community, they rarely socialize anymore and spend most of their time together indoors.

Sheldon’s Driveway Scene

Danny: Sheldon! How are you?

Sheldon: Hello? Can I help you?

Danny: Sheldon, it’s Danny. Danny Glickson, from Beth Israel?

Sheldon: Oh yes. Hello, Danny. How are you?

Danny: I am great, Sheldon. Here, let me carry those groceries inside for you.

Sheldon: Oh, no thank you. I am fine.

Danny: Sheldon, how is Sarah?

Sheldon: We’re fine. Can’t complain.

Danny: Sheldon, we’ve missed you and Sarah over at Beth Israel. Rabbi Schwartz has been asking about you. Is everything okay?

Sheldon: Oh yes. We’ll make it down there one of these days.

Danny: You used to be so involved with the membership committee. We really miss seeing you. You know, we have a wonderful senior group that gets together for bridge games and shows and all kinds of great activities. Do you think you might be interested?

Sheldon: Oh, I do not know. We do not get out much these days.

Danny: Well, what kinds of things do you like to do?

Sheldon: Well, we have our routine. We take a walk together every morning before it gets too hot. We can’t walk as far as we used to, but we do like going to the pond. Then mostly we stay inside and watch our shows and read. I am afraid we’re just a boring old couple.

Danny: And your daughter? Does Tammy visit often?

Sheldon: We haven’t seen Tammy in awhile. I imagine she’ll come to town for Thanksgiving.

Danny: Sheldon, we’re concerned about you and Sarah. You seem to be spending so much time alone. The senior group is having a bridge tournament next Wednesday. Can I sign you two up?

Sheldon: Oh, that won’t be necessary. I have a doctor’s appointment and Sarah has to go to the hair dresser. Don’t worry about us, Danny. Sarah and I are fine on our own.

Liza’s Office Scene

A few days later, Danny meets with his friend Liza at Jewish Family Services.

Liza: Hi, Danny. Thanks for stopping by. What can I do for you?

Danny: Hey, Liza. I just wanted to ask your advice about an older couple at my synagogue. I think they may need some help, and I am wondering if Jewish Family Services has some resources that might be appropriate for them.

Liza: Sure. What’s the problem?

Danny: Well, I am just worried about how isolated they’ve been become. They’ve been members of Beth Israel for decades, and they used to be very involved. They both were on committees, and Sarah used to teach Hebrew school classes. But now we hardly ever see them.

Liza: Have you spoken with them about your concerns?

Danny: Well, I tried. I live in their neighborhood and the rabbi asked me to stop by and check on them. Sheldon was in the driveway putting away groceries. I told him we were concerned and I tried to invite them to some senior activities. We have such an active senior group at Beth Israel and I just know they would benefit from the social interaction. But Sheldon said they weren’t interested. It sounds like they spend almost all of their time alone in their home.

Liza: It was very nice of you to stop by and check on them. It sounds like their change of activity is concerning to you. How is their health?

Danny: Sheldon has bone cancer, but he seems to be doing well. He says they take walks every day. I think he might have some heart problems too… yeah, that’s right, Sheldon had a mild heart attack a few years back. Sarah’s in good health, as far as I know. But they’re in their mid-eighties, Liza. They shouldn’t be so isolated. And their daughter lives in another state and rarely come to visit. I just do not know how to go about helping this poor couple.

Liza: Hmmm. Well, we do have resources here at Jewish Family Services that can help older adults stay connected to the community. But let’s discuss this. I work with a lot of couples like Sheldon and Sarah, and I have some insights you might not have considered.

Questions

To practice the process of applying theory, respond to the following questions.

What social theories of aging do you think can be applied to Sheldon and Sarah’s situation? Explain specifically how you would apply these theories.

Based on your application of these theories, what advice do you think Liza should give to Danny?

What challenges do you think Sheldon and Sarah might face in the future?

Case Study 2: Orlando

Orlando, 69, is a retired senior manager of a large insurance company. In his professional life, he managed a department of almost 100 employees along with multimillion dollar budgets. Orlando retired last year, shortly before the death of his wife, whom he cared for through her long struggle with multiple sclerosis. He now lives with his daughter, her husband, and their four children. At first, Orlando was happy to move in and spend more time with his grandchildren, but the arrangement is no longer working well.

Jessica’s Living Room Scene

Jessica: Papi? Papi, I need you to pick up Sophia from swimming practice.

Orlando: (mumbles so she can’t hear him) Of course you do.

Jessica: Papi? Do you hear me? Papi, didn’t you hear me? I need you to pick up Sophia from swimming practice in fifteen minutes. She’s over at the rec center.

Orlando: It’s Saturday. You can pick her up yourself.

Jessica: I can’t. Work just called and they need me to come in. And Todd is out with the boys at a birthday party. I need your help.

Orlando: (getting very aggravated) Of course you do. You always need my help. What did you do before you had a live-in baby sitter and chauffer?

Jessica: Papi! It’s not like that. You know what a struggle it is for us to balance everything.

Orlando: (raises voice) Don’t blame me. You’re the one who decided to have four children. Your mother and I managed to raise three without taking advantage of our parents.

Jessica: Papi! Living here was your idea too. You were excited about spending more time with your grandchildren.

Orlando (very angry) My idea? Don’t kid yourself. You had me pegged for babysitting duty before your mother was in the ground.

Jessica: Stop it!

Orlando: Fine, I’ll pick up Sophia. But you better find yourself another arrangement soon. I am meeting with someone at a retirement community today.

Jessica: What? Why? We just need to get used to this new arrangement. Everything’s going to be fine.

Orlando: Everything may be fine for you, Jessica. But my life has changed. I can find my own place if I want to and I do not need your permission.

Jessica: You can’t move out! We won’t let you!

Orlando: You won’t let me? You do not have a say in the matter! I used to manage a multimillion dollar budget and a whole department and I can make decisions for myself. Find yourself a new babysitter.

Jessica: It’s not about the babysitting! If you go to a place like that, you are never going to get a hot meal. No one is going to look out for you. I promised Mami that I would take care of you and I am not going turn my back on that promise!

Orlando: You do not get to choose! Now if you’ll excuse me, I am going to go pick up your daughter — because that’s all that I am good for around here.

Ken’s Office Scene

Ken: Mr. Garcia! I am Ken Sorenson, admissions director. Welcome to Regency Lake! I understand you are interested in finding out more about our community.

Orlando: I am. I hear there are a lot of activities here.

Ken: There are! This is a very active community. Do you play golf?

Orlando: I’ve been known to play a few holes.

Ken: I’ll take you down to the golf course. And we’ve got tennis, bowling, readings groups, opportunities to volunteer in the community.

Orlando: A pool?

Ken: We have several. You’re a swimmer?

Orlando: I used to swim competitively. Just like my granddaughter Sophia.

Ken: Well, you’ll have to bring her down here. We’ve always got a population of grandkids hanging around.

Orlando: I would like that. (pauses and looks sad) My daughter is going to be very unhappy with me if I move out of her house though.

Ken: Why is that?

Orlando: She feels an obligation to take care of me. She thinks that if I come to a place like this I would be all alone and eat out of the microwave every day. That’s how it’s always been in our family – we always had a grandparent living with us. But things are different these days. I love my grandchildren to death, but I want to have grownup conversations with people my age.

Ken: You know, lots of families have concerns like this. After I show you around, why do not we ask your daughter to join us for a tour? You could show her what’s available and we can talk with her about the advantages to living a retirement community. Maybe we could help set her mind at ease. This is a chapter excerpt from Guilford Publications.
Personality in Adulthood, Second Edition: A Five-Factor Theory Perspective,
Robert R. McCrae and Paul T. Costa, Copyright © 2003
CHAPTER 1
Facts and Theories
of Adult Development
Suppose for a moment that people consulted lifespan developmental
psychologists as they do fortune tellers—to get a glimpse of their own
future. What would we tell them to expect as they grow older? Are there
predictable crises ahead? Are they likely to continue to mature and
grow, or is it all downhill from here? Will their basic natures and temperaments remain essentially as they are, or will internal unfolding or
changing circumstances (such as wars, illness, or technological innovations) reshape existing personalities? Do married couples grow apart
with the years, or do they come to resemble each other in personality as
they sometimes seem to do in appearance?
If asked to make these kinds of predictions for individuals, we
would hedge—and properly so. We would point out that the scientific
study of adulthood is young and little is known with certainty. Only in
the past three decades have a substantial number of investigators been
active in the field, and these have succeeded mainly in framing useful
questions, not in providing definitive answers to them. We would also
emphasize that science is concerned with generalizations, not specifics.
Epidemiologists, for example, can tell us the life expectancy of the average man or the average woman and some of the factors (such as smoking and exercise) that influence longevity, but they certainly cannot predict the exact age of death for any particular individual. Too many
people smoke and drink and live to 90 and too many athletes die young
to allow anything more than statements of probability.
1
2
PERSONALITY IN ADULTHOOD
But individuals inevitably apply these statements to themselves.
When Gail Sheehy published Passages (1976)—and later New Passages
(1996)—millions read the book, not because of a disinterested curiosity
about human development, nor because they admired her prose style
(engaging as it was). People read Passages because they wanted to make
sense of their own past, present, or future lives. In short, the topic of
this book is likely to be of personal as well as academic interest to most
readers, and our approach must take that fact into consideration. We
will argue for a particular position fully aware that many people find it
unappealing. We will therefore try to anticipate objections, and in general we will adopt an approach that Salvatore Maddi (1976) characterized as “partisan zealotry” rather than “benevolent eclecticism” in order
to “provide the reader with a vivid account” (p. 2) of our views. We believe that we can accomplish that goal without sacrificing scientific objectivity, and we hope our presentation will stimulate lively discussion
and further research.
The first version of this book (McCrae & Costa, 1984) took a simple but radical position: We argued that personality was stable in adulthood—that the traits one showed at age 30 would remain essentially
unchanged into old age. Much more information from longitudinal,
cross-sectional, and cross-cultural studies is now available, and argument has become more nuanced. Newer studies confirm that stability is
the predominant feature of personality in adulthood, but they also document predictable changes at certain ages and in certain individuals.
The story has become a bit more interesting.
Some readers are likely to have a strong background in personality
psychology but less knowledge of gerontology; some the reverse. We
will try to accommodate both groups by reviewing some fundamentals
in each discipline. Although our conclusions are driven by data and our
research has been squarely in the tradition of quantitative empiricism,
we will not burden the reader with much technical detail about the
studies we discuss—the cited literature can be consulted for that. We
will, however, spend considerable time on the logic of resear

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We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

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Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.