ENGL102 West Virginia University Logical Fallacy & False Dichotomy Essay – Research and choose a logical fallacy and describe it in your own words. What ty

ENGL102 West Virginia University Logical Fallacy & False Dichotomy Essay – Research and choose a logical fallacy and describe it in your own words. What type of fallacy is it? Where does it often appear? Can you find an example of it in your own work or in someone else’s argument?

– I will include some of my work

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ENGL102 West Virginia University Logical Fallacy & False Dichotomy Essay – Research and choose a logical fallacy and describe it in your own words. What ty
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– At least 250 words.

– Try and use other fallacies than this list :

* appeal to force

* appeal to pity

* appeal to people (appeal to vanity – appeal to snobbery – bandwang argument)

* appeal against the person

* appeal to authority

* appeal to ignorance

* hasty generalization

* false cause

* missing the point

* begging the question

* equivocation

* composition / division

* false dichotomy

*slippery slop

* straw man

* red herring 1
Annotated Bibliography
Health Information National Trends Survey. U.S. Social Media Use and Health Communication.
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National
Cancer Institute, Health Information National Trends Survey, 2011. INSERT-MISSINGDATABASE-NAME, INSERT-MISSING-URL. Accessed 27 Aug. 2019.
The article seeks to highlight how the gaps in social media are believed to limit health
communication and information out there. Other than that, individuals are considered to
be influenced by social media that has resulted in a major impact on their mental health.
The Health Information National Trends Survey states that internet use varies from age to
age as well as the platforms used. In this case, younger people tend to use social media
more often compared to older people and more likely to be bloggers. Additionally, the
article has claimed that the information presented is not affected by race, social group or
ethnicity. According to the article, people’s health status effects their use of social media.
People with diseases are less likely to be suing social media than people who doesn’t
have any history with diseases. To spread the health information, you want to send they
were suggesting that you need to consider the age and level of education of your
audience, the platform you are using, and the message you are sending to be able to
communicate in social media.
Lofton, Tarena. “Coming Out About Mental Health On Social Media.” Kaiser Health News, 26
Aug. 2019, khn.org/news/coming-out-about-mental-health-on-social-media/. Accessed 28
Aug 2019.
2
The author is talking about how talking about mental health in social media is something
that many people started to do and actually helps them. They started with talking about
Susanna Harris who is a Ph.D. student and how she started to share her struggle with
mental health on Twitter and created a hashtag to use when tweeting about it. They talked
about how hashtags have helped people to share this stories with mental health and get
support from others. Hashtags have also helped them to communicate and engage more
with people who are going through what they are going through. They are also saying
that some organizations started using social media platforms to provide information about
different mental health illnesses and make it a place for people to discuss and share their
concerns. At the end, if social media was use the wrong way it could have a negative
effect, but if it was use right it could have a positive effect and so it can be good for
mental health.
Miller, Caroline. “Does Social Media Cause Depression?” Child Mind Institute,
childmind.org/article/is-social-media-use-causing-depression/. Accessed 29 Aug 2019.
The author’s main question was whether or not social medial use is the reason behind
being depressed especially among children. In few studies, they found that depression
and suicide are more commune among people who uses social media for longer time.
They also found that the percentage of people who have depression or suicide have
increased since the use of smartphones increased. Some experts found that the increase in
depression is because the electronic connections social media users form aren’t
emotionally satisfying, which makes them feel socially isolated. Researchers also think
that the loss of self-esteem that users may have is the reason behind the increase in
3
depression as many people will compare themselves negatively to others. Finally, they
ended up with giving parents some advices on how to decrease the negative effects of
social media such as checking regularly and encouraging them to not use them by setting
a phone-free times etc.
Mir, Elina, and Caroline Novas. “Social Media and Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Mental
Health.” National Center for Health Research, 17 Oct. 2018,
www.center4research.org/social-media-affects-mental-health/. Accessed 28 Aug 2019.
Mir, Elina and Caroline highlighted a description of the most popular social media
platforms and how they are used. In the article, the benefits of social media have been
discussed as it allows adolescents to build social communication and friendships and
boost their feelings about themselves positively. But now there is what is called Facebook
depression. Which means that some of teens started to feel depressed because of social
media platform. People tend to share positive thing that happens to them and the good
part of their lives which can be overwhelming to some teens. But Facebook depression is
still not listed in the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic manual. They found
that some researches have seen that adolescents who spend more time on social media or
have more social media platforms are more at risk for suicide of depression. They also
found a study that have seen that teens who visits at least 58 time a week any platform are
more at risk to feel socially isolated. Then they talked about what could parents do to
prevents their children from any risks and one of their suggestions was to check regularly
with their children to make sure that they are in a good online behavior. Finally, they
4
ended up with giving some tips on how to make sure that social media is not affecting us
negatively.
Naslund, J A, et al. “The Future of Mental Health Care: Peer-to-Peer Support and Social
Media.” Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Apr.
2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830464/.
The article discusses the benefits and risks of social media for people with mental health
illnesses. They are willing to make a connection with others and share their views and
make friend through social media. Studies have found that they feel less alone and have
more hope by others support who are facing the same thing. People tend to share their
stories and strategies for coping the life challenges so people mental illnesses can benefit
from. They shared the importance of social media in peoples with mental illnesses lives.
They talked about how it can help them to have a better recovery and help them to
overcome some of effects of their illnesses such as information processing, the increase
in social anxiety as well as interacting with others. Then they warped it up with talking
about some of the risks that can be associated with it. One of the risks is that people can
get wrong advices from unknown users. It can also lead to unrealistic expectation which
can cause anxiety to some. People with mental illnesses can feel dependent for
relationships online but face difficulties with communicating offline. There are also
accounts that support self-harm, unhealthy behaviors, or are active in online harassment.
5
Evaluation
Mental health is currently a major concern due to behaviors and activities that individuals
exhibit in their communities. People who experience mental illness manipulate various social
media platforms to express their stories, share, and give their ideas and opinions on various
topics according to their discussions and life’s experiences. Notably, social media has created
platforms where individuals can seek peer-to-peer support from others who might be undergoing
similar events in life. Majorly, social media has helped in addressing various mental conditions
due to advice, experience, and lessons that individuals learn from their online communities.
However, social media also contributes to mental illness due to peer influence and misguided
advice and inspirations that individual’s access from the online communities.
Social media is a major concern in mental health today because it provides opportunities
where people share their experiences through peer-to-peer group support. According to Naslund,
Aschbrenner, Marsch, and Bartels (236), individuals who uses social media to share their
experiences indicate a critical point in their mental health where they need help based on their
appeals. Majorly, mental illness is characterized by social isolation when their victims spend
most of the time thinking about their tribulations. However, people who use social media to seek
solutions concerning their challenges present a significant role that the platform has in
remedying various mental conditions. For instance, Naslund et al., (376) elaborate that
individuals who share their experiences in their platforms benefit from the advice provided by
those who had overcome the situation before. Besides the advice, social media has helped in
managing mental illnesses by enabling the victims to reach psychiatrists and other support
groups to manage their conditions appropriately.
6
Consequently, social media is a major intervention in mental health due to its ability to
challenge stigma as far as an individual’s perception of self is concerned. Notably, many victims
of mental illness are associated with feelings of shame concerning their specific life events. The
shame contributes to mental challenges because it suppresses the victim’s ego hence affecting
their interactions and life’s perceptions as explained by Naslund et al., (656). The individuals
often feel rejected by others and discriminated in various instances even when they are treated
like the rest. Despite the challenges, engagement in social media helps in challenging stigma by
increasing the victim’s self-esteem as far as their behaviors are concerned. For instance, the peerto-peer support groups enlighten people to embrace self-efficacy that involves feeling good about
one-self to avoid dangerous activities. The online communities further challenge stigma to
address mental health by enlightening individuals to focus on their strengths and ambitions in life
rather than other people’s perceptions about them.
Furthermore, the social media act as crucial platforms for addressing mental health
following rich information it presents about life. Specifically, online communities are comprised
of information from a variety of sources due to various experiences that individuals have in life.
According to Naslund et al., (264), individuals who encounter various mental illnesses have a
better chance of learning from others who share similar experiences. Following the vulnerability
of people who suffer mental illness, continued online engagements would help them to learn how
to cope with their situations as they work on the applicable remedies. Additionally, social media
platforms such as facebook help in addressing mental health because they enlighten individuals
on what to expect in various life’s engagements. For example, people who venture into
relationships are advised not to expect much from their partners but instead commit to each other
according to professional commentaries. The social platforms such as youtube further contribute
7
to addressing mental illness by enlightening individuals about various actions they can take to
address challenges in their lives to avoid situations that lead to mental illness.
Subsequently, social media also act as significant avenues for addressing mental illness
because they provide professional interventions due to exposure. In particular, platforms such as
Facebook and twitter are characterized by various psychological professionals who help
individuals to manage various mental conditions they are experiencing. For instance, individuals
who encounter mental challenges due to relationship issues benefit from accessing relationship
experts to help them address various issues in their lives. Additionally, people who encounter
mental illness due to health challenges can access doctors and other physicians to help them
address their conditions effectively to avoid self-harm or danger to others.
In summation, Mental health is currently a major concern due to behaviors and activities
that individuals exhibit in their communities. People who experience mental illnesses manipulate
various social media platforms to express their stories, share, and give their ideas and opinions
on various topics according to their discussions and life’s experiences. Social media has created
platforms where individuals come to to seek peer-to-peer support. Among the topics that are
attributed to various mental illness, conditions include relationship, health, unemployment,
family, stigma and various psychological concerns. Majorly, social media has helped in
addressing various mental conditions due to advice, experience, and lessons that individuals
learn from their online communities. However, social media also contributes to mental illness
due to peer influence and misguided advice and inspirations that individual’s access from the
online communities.
The article The Future of Mental Health Care: Peer-to-Peer Support and Social Media
was pupliched by Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences which is a quarterly peer-reviewed
8
scientific journal covering psychiatry and epidemiology. The article was written by a lot of
mental health educated writers. One of them is John Naslund who has expertise in many different
fields such as social disparities research and digital mental health. His work seems to address
early mortality that have impacted individuals with different serious mental illnesses all over the
world, and to decrease the global treatment gap for mental disorders. Dr. Naslund was a leader in
many projects that leverage social media networks, mobile technologies, and big online data to
develop, evaluate and implement digital interventions focusing at not only treating but also
preventing mental disorders. Dr. Naslund worked with individuals with mental illness and mental
health providers and has built partnerships with them. Because of that Dr. Naslund have a lot of
experience in the topic and properly always have an accurate information to support his work as
well as all other writers. Considering all the authors’ interests and the work that they have done
before, their information is all up to date. In the article, the authors had a lot of resources to back
up their ideas. The article was very smooth and formed correctly. It was easy to follow their
ideas and move from one point to another. They talked about both benefits and risks that can be
linked to the use of social media and peer-to-peer support. The article has a great verity of
helpful information that I can use to support both sides of my research. They also provided all
the sources that they have used which can be beneficial to look at too.
9
Works Cited
Naslund, J A, et al. “The Future of Mental Health Care: Peer-to-Peer Support and Social
Media.” Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Apr.
2016, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4830464/.
10
Research Proposal
The impacts of social media use on the mental health of young people
Introduction
Over the past two decades, the use of social media has tremendously increased among the
youth. Although research shows that adolescent’s interaction with social media is generally
increasing in all age brackets, the population of young adults is noted to have a great number of
users. The same population is observed to experience a lot of mental health disorders worldwide.
According to Kessler et al., an approximate of 50% of all mental health problems are associated
with adolescents at the age of 14 while 75% are established by the age of 18 (959-961). Various
research findings indicate that there is a relationship between increased mental disorders in the
youth population and the increased use of social media in the same population. However, it is
difficult to tell how the youth’s use of social media is connected with these mental health problems.
As a result, this research will seek to explore the correlation between the social media use and the
mental health of youths.
Statement of the problem
Recently there have been increased cases of psychological (mental health) disorders among
the adolescents in the United States. At the same time, the rate of use of social media has raised in
the same population. As a result, concern has risen on whether the use of social media is connected
in any way with the increasing mental health problems among the youths.
Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study will be to explore the relationship between social media use and
mental health of young people. It will try to identify and discuss how the use of social media
11
influences adolescents’ mental health. Through synthesizes of the available literature relating to
young people mental health, social media use among the youths and the current social theories that
elaborate how the use of social media by young people relates to their mental health, the study will
achieve its goal. Also, the study aims at breaching the gap that exists between the existing literature
about the influence of social media use and mental health of the youth and what has not been yet
brought into the book.
Literature review
Social media use is observed to have a substantial impact of various aspects of the current
digital life from online communication and basic human interaction to health. According to Bashir
et al., social media is associated with many benefits but when misused it negatively affects mental
health and well-being of its users (126-131). Research contacted by Bashir, et al. indicated that the
majority of young adults spend much of their time in online making new friends and socialization
thus being exposed to risk of negative impacts of social media (126-131). However, negative
outcomes are likely to be experienced when social media is used among young people. According
to Bashir et al, depression, anxiety, stress and loneliness are among negative impacts that can be
caused by the use of social media (126). At this point, social media is believed to have a connection
with mental health since young people can be influenced to live a false life. In other words, social
media can end up depicting how people use it to flaunt their flashy and luxurious lives. Due to this
feature, young people can end up experiencing mental health issues such as stress and loneliness
as they have failed to live by the expectation depicted on social media. Other than that, many
people use social media for self-disclosure and a need for belonging and self-presentation. In other
words, the use of social media has made people try to prove their self-worth to others that has
ended up resulting in mental health situations. According to the research of Bashir et al, the use of
12
Facebook helps to fulfill a person’s need for self-integrity and self-worth. Also, adolescents may
engage in the use of social media to make new friend, find partners, read celebrities’ comments
and follow them (Strickland, 3). All these activities might pose a negative impact on the minds of
the users. Sometimes they are cyber bullied since their minds are still young and might not be able
to tolerate some of the posts and comments they meet on social media platforms. Although,
majority of young people engage in social media to socialize and make new friend Strickland states
that social media use is associated to negative outcomes like loneliness and increased depression
among other problems like anxiety and narcissism (Strickland, 4) that might consequently affect
the mental health of the young adults.
According to research contacted by Rose et al. in 2013, Facebook users are associated with
narcissism, depressive disorders, bipolar-mania and dysthymia (Rose et al. 1243-1254). Similarly,
a Croatian study contacted by Pantic et al. (2012) discovered students who spent much time on
Facebook experienced more depression problems (Pantic et al., 90-93). The researchers found that
students who spend much time online were evidenced to express more depression symptoms
(Pantic et al. (90-93). Keles et al (2), describe problematic behaviors associated with internet use
as an addiction. Therefore,…
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