MOS 6301 Columbia Southern University Unit VIII Advanced Industrial Hygiene Questions Establishing some type of management strategy for industrial hygiene

MOS 6301 Columbia Southern University Unit VIII Advanced Industrial Hygiene Questions Establishing some type of management strategy for industrial hygiene (IH). In other words, how does a facility decide when to sample, how often to sample, etc. The reading this week is Chapter 3 Fuller, T. P. (2015). Essentials of industrial hygiene. Itasca, IL: National Safety Council. About management systems and an article you can access in the study guide.Please see asked question to provide some information from the text for some questions asked. You are allowed to use the text (but nothing else) I-(no calculations required!). UNIT VIII S T U D Y G U ID E
Im p le m e n tin g Industrial Hygiene
M a n a g e m e n t Strategies
C o u rs e L e a rn in g O u t c o m e s fo r U n it VIII
Upon completion of this u n it, students should be able to:
2. Discuss industrial hygiene related s ta n d a rd s .
2.1 Summarize how in d u s tria l hygiene standards and other re g u la to ry standards interrelate.
2 . E x a m in e the fo u n d a tio n a l scientific principles for in d u s tria l hygiene practices.
3 . Assess methods fo r p e rfo rm in g industrial hygiene workplace analysis.
4 . Analyze industrial hygiene related data.
5 . Evaluate exposure to workplace hazards u tiliz in g published occupational exposure levels.
6 . R e c o m m e n d controls fo r in d u s tria l h e a lth hazards.
7 . Formulate industrial hygiene m a n a g e m e n t strategies.
8.1 Explain how in d u s tria l hygiene policies and procedures fit into an overall Occupational Safety
and Health (O S H ) m a n a g e m e n t system.
R e a d in g A s s ig n m e n t
C h a p t e r 3 : Management S y s te m s
In order to access the following re s o u rc e , c lic k the link b e lo w .
Corcoran, D. (2018). The OSH professional and environmental management re s p o n s ib ilitie s (Unpublished
paper). C o lu m b ia Southern U n iv e rs ity , Orange Beach, AL.
Click here to access this p a p e r
U n it L e s s o n
UNIT x STUDY G U ID E
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Throughout this c o u rs e , we have looked at how to anticipate, recognize, e v a lu a te , and c o n tro l health hazards
in the workplace. H o w e v e r, industrial hygiene (IH) a c tiv itie s d o not exist in a v a c u u m . Health hazards are o n ly
one set of hazards that must be addressed to provide the h e a lth y , safe workplace required under the
Occupational S a fe ty and Health (OSH) Act of 1970. Physical hazards associated with the workplace must
also be evaluated a n d controls im p le m e n te d to re d u c e the risk associated with the hazards. A d d itio n a lly ,
environmental ris k s m u s t also be addressed. All of these a c tiv itie s m u s t somehow be synergized with the
goals of the company, which ty p ic a lly include making a profit for the o w n e r(s ) or shareholders.
M a n a g e m e n t S y s tem O v e r v i e w
T o achieve these goals, it is important fo r companies to im p le m e n t and maintain e ffe c tiv e m a n a g e m e n t
s y s te m s (F u lle r, 2015). The management systems must not only consider the company’s goals and
objectives, but must ensure that th e c o m p a n y complies with all re g u la to ry requirements from agencies lik e the
Occupational S a fe ty a n d Health Administration (O S H A ), the Environmental P ro te c tio n A g e n c y ( E P A ), the
Department of T ra n s p o rta tio n (DOT), the Food and D ru g Administration (FDA), and applicable s ta te agencies
(F u lle r, 2015). If the c o m p a n y c o m p e te s on the global m a rk e t, even m o re requirements fo r countries where
the c o m p a n y c o m p e te s fo r business must be included in the m a n a g e m e n t system. T h e blending of all these
requirements can m a k e the implementation of a s a fe ty system extremely complicated.
T y p ic a lly , IH p ro g ra m s and policies are included in a broader environmental health and s a fe ty (EHS) p o lic y .
T h e titles of the p o lic y (and department) can vary fro m company to company. B e s id e s EHS, other c o m m o n
titles are occupational s a fe ty a n d health (O S H ), s a fe ty health and environmental (SHE), and health s a fe ty a n d
environmental (HSE). W h ic h e v e r title is used, the overarching goal of these programs and policies is to blend
the p ro g ra m s and p o lic ie s into one coherent approach to protecting workers and the environment. This
approach reduces the amount of duplication fo r th e three fields (F u lle r, 2015).
Proactive v ers u s R ea ctiv e M a n a g e m e n t S y s t e m s
T h e re are two approaches companies can take to O S H m a n a g e m e n t programs, proactive or re a c tiv e . A
proactive program will a tte m p t to control e x p o s u re s to hazards in order to prevent harm to worker health or
the environment, even if that m e a n s going beyond re g u la to ry re q u ire m e n ts . A reactive approach ty p ic a lly just
m e e ts the minimal, re g u la to ry requirements and then addresses a n y harm that m a y occur as it occurs. Safety
professionals are ty p ic a lly fa c e d with both m a n a g e m e n t system approaches during their careers and must
learn to o p e ra te within or a tte m p t to change the s y s te m .
T h e choice of implementing and m a in ta in in g a proactive or reactive m a n a g e m e n t system will also h e lp
determine the approach a c o m p a n y takes with the IH portion of the O S H policies. A re a c tiv e system will
ty p ic a lly o n ly re q u ire th e use of le g a lly enforceable occupational exposure limits (OELs), lik e the O S H A
permissible exposure lim its (PELs). A proactive s y s te m will ty p ic a lly use the m o s t conservative of all
published OELs. Of course, the p rim a ry c o n c e rn of management with th e choice o f which OELs to use is the
cost. T h e m o re conservative the OEL, the m o re that must be spent fo r controls to reduce exposures to that
level. In m a n y cases, one o f the m o s t difficult things an OSH professional must do is persuade m a n a g e m e n t
of the cost benefits associated with utilizing m o re conservative OELs.
O S H A R e q u ire d P r o g r a m s
OSHA has issued s o m e regulations requiring c o m p a n ie s to im p le m e n t s a fe ty m a n a g e m e n t programs. T h e
regulation that m o s t c o m m o n ly applies to health h a z a rd s is the Process S a fe ty M a n a g e m e n t of Highly
Hazardous Chemicals, 29 CFR 1 9 1 0 .1 1 9 (O S H A , 1970b). This regulation o n ly applies to facilities that use
specific chemicals above a threshold level set in the standard. H o w e v e r, fo r those companies that m e e t the
requirement, the regulation requires th e c o m p a n y to implement a s a fe ty m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m to reduce th e
risks associated with the c h e m ic a l(s ) (O S H A , 1970b).
MOS 6 3 0 1 , Advanced In d u s tria l H y g ie n e
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O S H A V o lu n tary P r o g r a m s
UNIT x STUDY G U ID E
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Not e v e ry work location fa lls under th e p ro c e s s s a fe ty m a n a g e m e n t regulation. F o rtu n a te ly , several other
options exist that c o m p a n ie s can use to help im p le m e n t and maintain e ffe c tiv e O S H m a n a g e m e n t systems.
S o m e of these p ro g ra m s have a c tu a lly been c re a te d b y O S H A and o ffe re d to companies who want to
participate on a voluntary basis (Fuller, 2015). The most popular and widely used programs are OSHA’s
(2011) V o lu n ta ry Protection P ro g ra m s (VPPs). T h e s e p ro g ra m s allow companies to work with OSHA on a
voluntary basis to evaluate the e ffe c tiv e n e s s of their OSH m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m s . T h e company must
im p le m e n t its m a n a g e m e n t system prior to applying fo r VPP s ta tu s , but the p ro g ra m contains s o m e criteria
that the c o m p a n y c a n use as a guideline fo r establishing the m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m (O S H A , 2 0 1 1 ).
T h e VPP then contains a process w h e re b y OSHA will perform a review of the m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m , including
an on-site audit to evaluate the effectiveness of the system (O S H A , 2 0 1 1 ). A fte r th e evaluation, the s ite can
earn p la c e m e n t in one of three categories: s ta r (the highest level), m e rit, or demonstration. Obtaining VPP
star status indicates a fa c ility h a s developed and im p le m e n te d a h ig h ly e ffe c tiv e O S H m a n a g e m e n t system.
O th e r V o lu n tary P r o g r a m s
T h e re are also several nonprofit organizations that publish guidelines that c a n a s s is t a c o m p a n y in developing
and implementing e ffe c tiv e OSH m a n a g e m e n t systems. One of the most widely recognized is th e A m e ric a n
National Standards Institute (ANSI; F u lle r, 2015). W h ile s o m e ANSI standards do not relate d ire c tly to O S H ,
m a n y do, and s o m e are even incorporated by re fe re n c e b y OSHA in 29 CFR 1910.6 (OSHA, 1970a). W h e n a
guideline is incorporated by reference, the m a n d a to ry sections are adopted as standards under th e O S H Act
(OSHA, 1970a). S o m e of the ANSI standards re la te d to m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m s are listed on pages 53 and 5 4
of the textbook. Of importance is a fa irly n e w ANSI Z10 Standard titled Occupational Health and Safety
Management Systems (F u lle r, 2015).
Another nonprofit organization that publishes guidelines that are used by m a n y organizations is th e
International Organization fo r Standardization (ISO). T h e textbook discusses ISO and s o m e of its guidelines
starting on page 58. Of particular importance for this unit’s lesson are th e IS O 9001 and ISO 1 4 0 0 1
standards. These tw o standards relate to m a n a g e m e n t systems. Companies that compete g lo b a lly w ill often
be required to obtain c e rtific a tio n under one or both of the standards (F u lle r, 2 0 1 5 ). C e rtific a tio n requires
development of an e ffe c tiv e m a n a g e m e n t plan, including OSH c o m p o n e n ts and o n -s ite inspections. In many
cases, ISO certifications include an IH component.
One additional nonprofit organization important to O S H professionals working in the health in d u s try would b e
T h e Joint C o m m is s io n . T h e Joint C o m m is s io n issues standards for hospitals to obtain certification (The Joint
Commission, n.d.). T h e process involves m a n y re q u ire m e n ts , including a component that is c o m m o n ly
p e rfo rm e d b y his: infection control. Infection control ty p ic a lly requires the a n tic ip a tio n , re c o g n itio n , evaluation,
and c o n tro l of biological hazards.
IH M a n a g e m e n t System C o m p o n e n t
A one-time m e a s u re m e n t of exposures at a fa c ility provides v e ry limited data fo r risk a s s e s s m e n ts of ongoing
exposures. T h e re are m a n y variables that can a ffe c t the o v e ra ll risk associated with a chemical hazard.
Exposures can change d ra m a tic a lly depending on changes in work practices, ventilation, seasons of the year,
and workloads.
Therefore, it is important to establish s o m e policies associated with sampling fo r e x p o s u re s at a fa c ility . In
other words, how often will you s a m p le fo r specific c o m p o u n d s at a fa c ility ? In s o m e cases, OSHA has
established a sampling schedule based on the results from initial sampling. For e x a m p le , OSHA requires
ongoing sampling e v e ry three m o n th s fo r exposures to hexavalent c h ro m iu m that exceed the PEL and e v e ry
six m o n th s fo r exposures that exceed the action level, but are less than the PEL (O S H A , 1970d). T h e
additional sampling has to be c o n tin u e d in d e fin ite ly until two samples, collected at least s e v e n days a p a rt,
s h o w th e exposures are less than th e action level and th e PEL.
MOS 6 3 0 1 , Advanced In d u s tria l H y g ie n e
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OSHA re q u ire s employers to determine if employee e x p o s u re s exceed PELs
inUNIT29CFRxSTUDY1910.1000GUIDE(OSHA,1970c). OSHA does not include a requirement
fo r ongoing air
T itle
sampling fo r a n y of those compounds. This required the in d u s tria l hygienist to m a k e a subjective decision on
the frequency o f sampling fo r specific compounds. This sampling plan should be included as part of the OSH
m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m s plan (F u lle r, 2015). A common a p p ro a c h is to establish a sampling plan based on a
ris k assessment to determine re s id u a l ris k . Thus, compounds with higher to x ic ity and/or higher exposure
p o te n tia l would have m o re frequent sampling than other c o m p o u n d s . Another aspect of the IH sampling
p o lic y is that additional sampling should be indicated if there are a n y c h a n g e s in p ro c e s s e s that would
indicate a h ig h e r exposure m a y be present (F u lle r, 2015). E x a m p le s would include the addition of m o re
production lines, changes in the chemicals that are being used, changes in the concentrations of s p e c ific
chemicals being used, and changes in engineering controls lik e ventilation systems.
References
F u lle r, T . P . (2015). Essentials of industrial h y g ie n e . Ita s c a , IL: N a tio n a l S a fe ty C o u n c il.
T h e Joint C o m m is s io n (n.d.). Accreditation guide fo r hospitals . Retrieved fro m
h ttp s ://w w w .jo in tc o m m is s io n .o rg /a s s e ts /1 /1 8 /1 7 1 1 1 0 _ A c c re d ita tio n _ G u id e _ H o s p ita ls _ F IN A L .p d
f
Occupational S a fe ty a n d Health Act, 29 U .S .C . § 654 (1970).
Occupational S a fe ty a n d Health Administration. (1970a). Occupational s a fe ty and health s ta n d a rd s : General
(Standard No. 1910.6). Retrieved from h ttp s ://w w w .o s h a .g o v /la w s regs/regulations/standardnumber/1910/1910.6
Occupational S a fe ty a n d Health Administration. (1970b). Occupational s a fe ty and health s ta n d a rd s :
Hazardous materials (Standard No. 1 9 1 0 .1 1 9 ). Retrieved from h ttp s ://w w w .o s h a .g o v /la w s re g s /re g u la tio n s /s ta n d a rd n u m b e r/1 9 1 0 /1 9 1 0 .1 1 9
Occupational S a fe ty a n d Health Administration. (1 9 7 0 c ). Occupational s a fe ty and health s ta n d a rd s : T o x ic and
hazardous substances (Standard No. 1910.1000). Retrieved from
h ttp s ://w w w .o s h a .g o v /p ls /o s h a w e b /o w a d is p .s h o w _ d o c u m e n t? p _ ta b le = S ta n d a rd s & p _ id = 9 9 9 1
Occupational S a fe ty a n d Health Administration. (1970d). Occupational s a fe ty and health s ta n d a rd s : Toxic a n d
hazardous substances (Standard No. 1910.1026). Retrieved from h ttp s ://w w w .o s h a .g o v /la w s regs/regulations/standardnumber/1910/1910.1026
Occupational S a fe ty a n d Health Administration. (2 0 1 1 ). All about VPP. Retrieved from
h ttp s ://w w w .o s h a .g o v /d c s p /v p p /a ll_ a b o u t_ v p p .h tm l
S u g g e s te d R e a d i n g
In order to access the following resources, click the lin k s below.
T h e CSU Online L ib ra ry contains m a n y a rtic le s that relate to the Unit VIII re a d in g s . T h e following are just a
fe w of the related articles that can be found in the A c a d e m ic Search Complete database:
M a n y organizations use the International Organization fo r Standardization (ISO) standards fo r their
occupational s a fe ty a n d health (OSH) m a n a g e m e n t systems. T h e re are several ISO standards that can apply
depending on the c o m p a n y . The following article reviews ISO 45001 as a m o d e l fo r an OSH m a n a g e m e n t
system and its effects on controlling musculoskeletal disorders (M S D s ).
Rostykus, W . G., Ip, W., & Dustin, J. A. (2 0 1 6 ). Managing ergonomics: Applying ISO 45001 as a m o d e l.
Professional S a fe ty , 16(1 2 ), 34–42. Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t= tru e & d b = a 9 h & A N = 1 1 9 8 4 3 0 3 9 & s ite = e h o s t-liv e & s c o p e = s ite
MOS 6 3 0 1 , Advanced In d u s tria l H y g ie n e
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Another c o m m o n OSH management system is the ANSI/ASSE Z 1 0
standard.UNITThefollowingxSTUDYarticleGUIDEsummarizes that m a n a g e m e n t systems
T itlestandard.
Manuele, F . A. (2014). A N S I/A IH A /A S S E Z 1 0 -2 0 1 2 : An overview of the occupational health & safety
m a n a g e m e n t systems standard. Professional S a fe ty , 59(4 ), 4 4 –51. Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t= tru e & d b = a 9 h & A N = 9 5 2 5 4 8 9 5 & s ite = e h o s t-liv e & s c o p e = s ite
An important component of a n y OSH m a n a g e m e n t system is evaluation fo r continual im p ro v e m e n t. T h e
following article discusses one method that can b e u s e d to id e n tify m a n a g e m e n t system deficiencies.
Lyon, B. K., P o p o v , G., & Roberts, A. (2018). Causal fa c to rs analysis: U n c o v e rin g & correcting m a n a g e m e n t
system deficiencies. Professional S a fe ty , 63(1 0 ), 49–5 9 . Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t= tru e & d b = a 9 h & A N = 1 3 2 1 2 0 6 2 8 & s ite = e h o s t-liv e & s c o p e = s ite
One option available to c o m p a n ie s to test th e ir m a n a g e m e n t s y s te m s and show their effectiveness is through
OSHA’s Voluntary Protection Program (VPP). The following article lo o k s at the VPP program.
Keenan, J . (2018). S a fe ty excellence through VPP. Professional S a fe ty , 63(4 ), 17–19. Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc
t= tru e & d b = a 9 h & A N = 1 2 8 7 8 3 0 4 2 & s ite = e h o s t-liv e & s c o p e = s ite
L e a rn in g A c t iv itie s (N o n g rad ed )
Nongraded Learning A c tiv itie s are provided to aid students in their course of s tu d y . Y o u do not have to s u b m it
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor fo r further guidance and information.
OSHA has produced two recent videos on e ffe c tiv e s a fe ty and health m a n a g e m e n t programs. Y o u can see
them listed a t h ttp s ://w w w .o s h a .g o v /v id e o / . How well do the videos increase your knowledge about s a fe ty a n d
health m a n a g e m e n t p ro g ra m s ?
Click here to view th e tra n s c rip t fo r the T h re e C o re Elements of E ffe c tiv e Safety a n d Health Programs video.
Click here to view th e tra n s c rip t fo r the Safe + Sound W e e k 2018: A re Y o u R e a d y to Show Your C o m m itm e n t
to Safety? video.
MOS 6 3 0 1 , Advanced In d u s tria l H y g ie n e
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T h e O S H P ro fe s s io n a l a n d Environm e n ta l M a n a g e m ent Responsibilities
Dan Corcoran, P h D , C IH , C S P
It is no s e c r e t that Occupational S a fe ty and H e a lth (O S H ) p r o fe s s io n a ls — and in d u s tria l h y g ie n is ts (IHs) in
particular — fre q u e n tly c ro s s over in to th e e n v ir o n m e n ta l fie ld d u e to a g re a t d e a l o f o v e rla p b e tw e e n
w o rk e r h e a lth and e n v iro n m e n ta l h e a lth c o n c e rn s r e l a te d to the ris k o f p o te n tia l chemical a n d p h y s ic a lagent e x p o s u re s . It is subsequently im p o rta n t fo r in d iv id u a ls w h o plan to work in t h e fie ld s o f s a fe ty a n d
in d u s tria l h y g ie n e to u n d e rs ta n d s o m e of t h e environmental ru le s , r e g u la tio n s , and e x p e c ta tio n s that they
m a y encounter s h o u ld they be handed the “environmental management hat . ” To help p ro v id e s o m e
p e r s p e c tiv e , th is a r tic le w ill c o v e r a n u m b e r o f d iffe re n t e n v iro n m e n ta l requirements th a t O S H
p ro fe s s io n a ls a n d in d u s tria l h y g ie n is ts might fin d th e m s e lv e s in v o lv e d w ith sometime d u rin g th e ir c a re e rs .
S p e c ific a lly , this p a p e r will b rie fly d is c u s s issues re la te d to a ir q u a lity , water quality, h a z a rd o u s m a te ria ls ,
and h a z a rd o u s w a s te r e la te d re g u la tio n s .
A ir Quality
S o m e o f th e im p o rta n t ro le s o f th e O S H p ro fe s s io n a l in c lu d e s e v a lu a tin g th e in d u s tr ia l e n v ir o n m e n t fo r a ir
c o n ta m in a n ts a n d re c o m m e n d in g c o n tr o ls to lim it the c o n c e n tra tio n o f th o s e c o n ta m in a n ts t o acceptable
le v e ls in th e w o rk e n v iro n m e n t. In o rd e r to lim it e x p o s u re , the u tiliz a tio n of s o m e ty p e o f v e n ti…
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