Eastern Kentucky University Environmental Implications Discussion PART 11. This week we talk about some shelter management issues related to the access and

Eastern Kentucky University Environmental Implications Discussion PART 11. This week we talk about some shelter management issues related to the access and functional needs populations. Identify and discuss one shelter issue and solution for the following –Physical disability ,Medical needs, and Supervision needsWhat are the legal ramifications if these needs are not met under current US law2. Respond to two of my classmates discussion (attachment 1) PART 2Create 3-4 PPT slide show based on the attached document (Attachment 2) POST 1
In a recent settlement in Washington D.C. (May, 2019), the District of Columbia agreed to truly
comprehensive reforms to its disaster/emergency planning process. Some of the reforms are
based on the knowledge gained from recent disasters like Hurricanes Katrina, Sandy, and
Maria. Under the historic settlement, the District has agreed to a comprehensive three-year plan
that calls for sweeping changes to current practice and may provide a model for other
jurisdictions. Some of these changes include systematic plans for evacuating high-rises, providing
ADA compliant shelters and evacuation vehicles, creating an advisory committee of people from
the disability community, accessible format disaster/emergency announcements, and plans to
systematically search and rescue for persons with disabilities-based knowledge acquired from
recent disasters
Post 2
The first legal ramification is the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. It prohibits
discrimination of all persons with disabilities in all areas of public life. The purpose of the law is
to make sure that people with disabilities have the same rights and opportunities as everyone
else. Although the ADA does not include provisions specifically discussing its application to
disasters, its nondiscrimination provisions are applicable to emergency preparedness and
responses to disasters (Lee, 2016). In this regard, this law requires all persons with disability to
be given special treatment that gives them equal opportunities to evade the effects of a disaster.
The second legal ramification is the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. It prohibits discrimination on the
basis of disability in programs conducted by federal agencies, in programs receiving federal
financial assistance, in federal employment and in the employment practices of federal
contractors. In disaster response, this act requires fair treatment of persons with disabilities (Lee,
2016). The act requires facilitation of persons with disabilities with equipment that help them
overcome the effects of a disaster. Violation of the aforementioned legal ramification may result
to law suits and fines to those involved in disaster response.
Environmental Implications
Until March 23, 2005, BP Texas City refinery was one of the most substantial producers
of energy in America. At full capacity, the refinery processed more than 10million gallons of
gasoline, which translates to roughly 3% of the country’s daily consumption. However, at
approximately 1.30 pm on that fateful day, America’s third-largest refinery suffered a significant
explosion that killed 15 workers instantly and leaving 180 others with fatal injuries the explosion
occurred when a vapor cloud of combustible hydrocarbon gas got ignited, causing a geyser-like
release from the vent. The mega-disaster cost the company billions of dollars in property damage,
lost production, and victims’ compensation. Even though the company rose to its feet again, the
disaster left a lasting environmental health impact in the city of Texas.
According to D’Andrea and Reddy (2014) the explosion at BP Texas City refinery released
approximately 2500 pounds of benzene, Group A human carcinogen and 30,000 of other
potentially dangerous air pollutants including sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxide
within Texas City. Additionally, the disaster led to a significant increase in Particulate Matter (PM)
comprising airborne particles such as asbestos fiber, soot, dust, and drops of liquid in the city and
its environs. The toxic gases released during the incident significantly affected the health and
wellbeing of Texans. D’Andrea and Reddy (2014) note that raw benzene was one of the volatile
organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants that was massively released in the environment
during the BP Texas City refinery explosion. A short-term (acute) exposure to this toxic gas caused
headaches, dizziness, drowsiness, unconsciousness as well as skin, eye, and respiratory tract
irritation among the Texans. However, long-term (chronic) exposure to this chemical caused
various disorders in the blood, including anaemia. Besides, a study conducted by (D’Andrea &
Reddy, 2014) demonstrated that high-level exposure to benzene compounds led to increased
incidences of leukemia among Texans.
Furthermore, the significant release of sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide in the
environment significantly destroyed the atmosphere’s ozone layer. According to (John, 2019), the
Ozone layer is the primary earth protector against harmful ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun.
These toxic gases depleted the earth’s ozone layer, increasing plants, animals and Texans exposure
of Ultraviolet radiation. Increased exposure to UV light led to a surge in cases of skin cancer and
Melanoma development among the people of Texas. Besides, the harmful rays also affected the
plant and marine ecosystem in Texas and neighboring states. Also, exposure to these harmful
chemicals led to respiratory infections, hurt disease, and lung cancer.
According to D’Andrea and Reddy (2014), the explosion at BP Texas City refinery also
released significant amounts of Particulate matter (PM) like dust and soot into the environment.
These microscopic particles can surpass the body’s defense system and penetrate the respiratory
and circulatory system. As a result, most of the Texans suffered from asthma, bronchitis, and
stroke as well as premature death from heart ailments, cancer, and lung diseases. Besides, the high
level of Particulate matter in the environment led to eye problems among the people, including eye
irritation, cataracts, conjunctivitis, and glaucoma. John (2019) argues that the incident also
released high levels of asbestos fiber in the environment. Asbestos materials are commonly used
in refinery stations for fireproofing of the building materials. High exposure to airborne asbestos
fibers causes various health problems because these toxic particles are introduced in the body
during the inhalation process. High levels of asbestos fiber in the respiratory system of Texan
caused severe lung diseases, including mesothelioma, lung cancer, or asbestosis.
The environmental health impact of BP Texas City refinery was hard to escape no matter
how the peoples’ social class, race or religion. The microscopic pollutants surpassed the peoples’
defences and penetrated deep into their circulatory and respiratory system, damaging the heart,
brain, and lungs. The effect of the pollution on health was dependent on the level of exposure and
vulnerability of the people. AS result, the elderly, children, and those with pre-existing health
conditions suffered the most in Texas. A study conducted by (D’Andrea & Reddy, 2014)
demonstrated that most children within a 50-mile radius from the explosion developed fetal brain
growth problems and cognitive impairment in senior adults. Furthermore, pregnant women
exposed to the pollutants were also adversely affected by some having miscarriages or other
pregnancy-related problems.
In conclusion, citing the fatal nature of the environmental health impact caused by the
disaster, including excessive premature mortality, workers and residents of Texas City filed
numerous lawsuits against BP Texas City refinery. The company paid hundreds of millions in
compensation from the damages it caused to the environment and people due to their negligence.
Besides, the BP Texas City refinery was required to construct at least four natural gas refueling
stations. According to (John, 2019), this directive reduced the emission of CO, PM, NO, and HC
by more than 70 tons per year.

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