Im trying to study for my Social Science course and I need some help to understand this question.
Respond to the following two posts seperately
FYI, Ill be doing in-group favoritism and out-group bias, since they seem to be linked together in the studies I read.
In-group favoritism refers to the tendency of groups to favor their own group compared to out-groups.
Out-group bias, also called out-group derogation, refers to the tendency of groups to discriminate against outside groups.
This favor towards ones own group and bias towards outside groups can be in the form of languagethat the in-groups say good things about their members and negative things about outgroup members (Moscatelli, Hewstone, & Rubini, 2017). It can also be seen in the way resources are distributed between groupsthat individual in-group members are more likely to take a personal loss to ensure the in-group is better off than the outgroup (Durrheim, Quayle, Tredoux, Titlestad, & Tooke, 2016). What was most surprising to me, this favoritism/bias has been found to be expressed much differently by majority/minority groups. Minority groups tend to consistently have a much higher out-group bias than majority groups (Bettencourt, Miller, & Hume, 1999). This can be seen in the way minority groups are almost twice as likely to speak negatively towards the outgroup than majority groups are, and vice-versa, majority groups almost twice as likely to say positive things about other members of the in-group than minority groups are to say good things about their own members (Moscatelli et al., 2017, p. 762). In what is referred to as asymmetry, majority groups are more likely to try to reinforce and build up their own majority group, while minority groups, instead of focusing on helping their own group, are more likely to try to tear down and apply negative outcomes to the majority out-group (Otten, Mummendey, & Blanz, 1996).
Taking all this into the context of the case study, the company, headquartered in the United States, has already shown in-group favoritism and out-group bias when it tried to build itself up at the expense of the locals by secretly securing for itself the rights to use more of the water from the Island in the South Pacific. When the locals rebelled, the company proceeded to make a series of mistakes not necessarily related to in-group favoritism or out-group bias. It might be argued that HQ sending managers from home to replace local managers is a form of out-group bias, with leadership trusting people from a localized in-group (the headquarters) more than trusting out-group members (employees from the outstation), but Id say it has more to do with ethnocentrism. The employees from minority-groups in the host country do tend to show an out-group bias when they refuse to speak English to or follow directions from the out-group managers.
To sum up, from my research, while all groups display some in-group favoritism and out-group bias, majority groups tend to focus on their in-group favoritism, while minority groups tend to focus on their out-group bias.
Ethnocentrism often refers to the attitude or perspective of an individual or a group of people that believe their group, organization, culture, or ethnicity is superior to others (Michailova et al., 2017, p. 335). In the majority of international business literature, ethnocentrism is viewed in a negative way, or as a barrier that has to be overcome by Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) in order to be successful (Michailova et al., 2017). Negative consequences of ethnocentrism include making host-country employees feel like second-class citizens, ethnocentric companies are less successful then geocentric companies, it blocks upward advancement of host country nationals, and it often violates the local values of the host-country culture (Michailova et al., 2017).
What I found interesting is that regardless of the negative view of ethnocentrism, especially in the realm of international business literature, that the majority of Multi-National Corporations (MNCs) are considered dominantly ethnocentric companies. It seems that we are naturally ingrained to have ethnocentric tendencies. For example, Michailova et al. (2017) references anthropologist William McGee that peoples limited knowledge and world views lead to see themselves as centers around which all other things revolve (McGee, 1900, p. 831). Also, Perlmutter (1969) argues that ethnocentrism is a natural human tendency, and that ethnocentrism in an MNC will decline as it gains experience and maturity in a global environment. Additionally, host-country nationals also often demonstrate ethnocentric attitudes towards MNCs operating in their host countries. Zeira references a study that found a prominent ethnocentric attitude toward subsidiaries of MNCs operating in these countries (2001, p. 67). Additionally, according to Zeira and Banai the ethnocentric positions of both MNC and host-country nationals can cause conflict and decrease effectiveness of the company (1981).
Putting this data into context with the case study for this discussion, I believe that the company took an ethnocentric approach when they decided to send in managers from the company headquarters to displace the local managers in efforts to return to profitability. Obviously, the company believed that their managers would be superior and better equipped to lead then the locally hired indigenous managers. Additionally, the ethnocentrism of the host-country employees can be seen by their local rebellions and resistance at the plant and the former managers statement that things are done differently over here. These are all indications of ethnocentrism taking root in the organization.
McGee, W. J. ( 1900 ). Primitive numbers. Bureau of American Ethnology Annual Report, 19, 821 851
Michailova, S., Piekkari, R., Storgaard, M., & Tienari, J. (2017). Rethinking Ethnocentrism in International Business Research. Global Strategy Journal, 7(4), 335. Retrieved from http://vlib.excelsior.edu/login?url=https://search…
Perlmutter, H. V. (1969). The tortuous evolution of the multinational corporation. Columbia Journal of World Business, 4(1), 918.
Zeira, Y. (1979). Ethnocentrism in host-country organizations. Business Horizons, 22(3), 6675.
Zeira, Y., & Banai, M. (1981). Attitudes of host-country organizations toward MNCs staf?ng policies: A cross-country and cross-industry analysis. Management International Review, 21(2), 3847.
Why Work with Us
Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers
We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.
Professional and Experienced Academic Writers
We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.
Free Unlimited Revisions
If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.
Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee
All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.
Original & Confidential
We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.
24/7 Customer Support
Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.
Try it now!
How it works?
Follow these simple steps to get your paper done
Place your order
Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.
Proceed with the payment
Choose the payment system that suits you most.
Receive the final file
Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.
No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.
No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.
Admission Essays & Business Writing Help
An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.
Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.
If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.