A) Step 1 – Transcription: During the processof transcription, the information in the DNA codons of a gene istranscribed into RNA.
Suppose that gene X has the DNA base sequence3-TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5.
Question: What would be the base sequence of RNA after transcription occurs?
B) Step 2 – Translation:During protein synthesis at the ribosome, the base sequence of themRNA codons is translated to the amino acid sequence of aprotein.
Question: Using the mRNA that you transcribedabove, use the genetic code table to determine the resulting aminoacid sequence?
What is the significance of the first and last codons?What meaning do these codons have for proteinsynthesis?
C) Mutations: A mutation is defined as a changein the base sequence of DNA. This may occur as amistake in DNA replication, for example.
Suppose that during DNA replication, two mutant DNA sequencesare produced as shown below.
For the 2 mutated DNA sequences, you will investigate howthese changes might affect the sequence of amino acids in aprotein.
Question: For each of the two, you will need to firsttranscribe the mRNA, and then use the genetic code table todetermine the amino acid sequence. Then state whether theprotein sequence changes for each.
Question: Then, explain why a change in aminoacid sequence might affect protein function.
Here is the original sequence, followed by two mutatedsequences, 1 and 2:
Original sequence 3′- TACCCTTTAGTAGCCACT-5
Mutated sequence 1) 3-TACGCTTTAGTAGCCATT-5′
Mutated sequence 2) 3-TAACCTTTACTAGGCACT-5.
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