Northampton is a local government district and a relatively large town located in the East Midlands in England. According to the 2011 census, Northampton had an approximated population of about 212,100, which made Northampton the 35th largest urban area in UK. After the World War II, the growth of Northampton was significantly constrained until was designated as a New Town during the 1970s (National Statistics, DCSF, and Land Registry, 2012). At present, the population of Northampton is still growing and there are underway plans aimed at regenerating the town center. Just like the rest of the UK, industrial employment in Northampton has reduced drastically with new employment opportunities emerging in financial services, distribution and public administration. Saint James Area is one of the core areas found in the Northampton district. Saint James Area lies at the center of Northampton (Northampton County Council, 2010).
Saint James Area has a total population of 12,940 people with the composition being 49.8% and 50.2% for males and females respectively. Saint James Area comprises of eight areas with Area A having a population of 1133; Area B having a population of 1346 and being the least deprived; Area C having a population of about 1504; Area D having a population of 1417; Area E having a population of 1485 with most of the housing being terraced; Area F having a population of 1577 with most of the housing being flats rented from the local government, Area F is considered to the most deprived in Saint James Area; Area G having a population of 1346; Area H having a population of 1479; and Area I having a population of 1319 with most of the residents lacking qualifications (Northamptonshire County Council, 2005). With regard to crime, Area leads with the highest crime rate of 22% whereas Area 3 has the lowest crime rate in Saint James Area (Northamptonshire Observatory, 2012).
With regard to demographics, Saint James Area has a lower percentage (8 percent) of resident citizens aged 18-24 relative to Northampton in its entirety (10 percent), which ranges from about 4 percent in Area C to about 12 percent in Area F. In aIDition, Saint James Area has a higher percentage (8 percent) of older citizens aged 75 and above than Northampton as a whole (7 percent). Having provided an overview of Saint James Area, this paper profiles the area with regard to the key themes associated with the national outcomes of deprivation. In the context of this paper, deprivation refers to unmet needs of the residents of a particular area, which is as a result of scarcity of resources. The states of deprivation are evaluated using 38 indicators that are grouped into seven areas that aIDress the concept of wellness. For the purpose of this paper, the key themes of deprivation that will be aIDressed will include income deprivation, employment deprivation, educational deprivation, barriers to housing, health deprivation, crime, and living environment deprivation.
According to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD), income deprivation measures the fraction of the population who receive (or depend on someone who receives) benefits such as child and working tax credits, guaranteed pension credits, job seekers allowance and income support. In this regard, the indicators of income deprivation include children and adults in families that receive income support; children and adults in families that receive job seekers allowance; children and families in families that receive pension credit; children and adults in families that receive Child Tax Credit (these families do not receive income support, job seekers allowance and pension credit and that there in equivalised income is less than 60% of the median before deducting housing costs); and asylum seekers receiving accommodation and subsistence support.
With regard to income deprivation in Saint James, there are several indicators of lower incomes when compared to the income levels in England; they include:
It is apparent from this statistics that income deprivation in Saint James is worrying, especially when compared with the England as a whole; this is because Saint James Area is lagging behind with regard to improvements in the income deprivation in England. Saint James Area is yet to report steady and substantial improvements with regard to reducing its Indices of Deprivation, particularly with regard to income deprivation. With this trend likely to be observed in the foreseeable future, the local government of Saint James Area will continue providing support to income deprived households in the area.
According to Northamptonshire Observatory (2012), employment deprivation measures the fraction of the working age population (which is often presumed to be 16-64 for mean and 15-59 for women) on the claimant count. According to Northampton County Council (2010), the employment domain of deprivation measures individuals who are willing to work; however, they are not able to do so because of unemployment, disability or sickness. There are a number of indicators for measuring employment deprivation, they include: the number of jobseekers allowance claimants (income-based and contribution); incapacity benefit claimants; employment and support allowance claimants; New Deal participants (18-24 years not receiving job seekers allowance); and participants in the New for Lone Participants.
With regard to the measures of income deprivation, Saint James Area has a higher percentage of unemployment individuals (4 percent) relative to Northampton district as a whole (3 percent). In area F, the unemployment rate is 10 percent whereas in other areas such as Area A, Area B and Area C have unemployment rates that are less than 2 percent. This implies that unemployment economic activity in Saint James Area is not distributed uniformly, which has resulted in disparities in employment/unemployment rates. In aIDition, 30 percent of the unemployment individuals in Saint James Area are aged between 16 and 24, with the unemployment age increasing in some areas such as Area G. The following are some of the statistics that point out the state of employment deprivation in Saint James Area:
The following table show the benefits claimants for Saint James Area expressed as a percentage of the working age population as by August 2010
|Any Key Working Age Benefit
|Job Seeker Allowance
From this table, a direct inference can be made that Saint James has a higher rate of employment deprivation when compared to both Northampton and England as a whole. A similar trend can also be observed in the case of other indicators for employment deprivation indicators as shown in the table below. From these statistics, there is a drastic need for the local and national government to adopt policies that will facilitate employment creation. In aIDition, the residents of Saint James should embark on self-employment initiatives in order to aIDress the issue of rising employment deprivation in the area.
|Indicators of employment deprivation
|Saint James numbers
|Saint James (percentage)
|Great Britain (percentage)
|ESA and incapacity benefits
|Others on income related benefits
|Key out of work benefits
Educational deprivation index measures the indicators associated with lack of educational and training qualifications among the citizens of a particular region. Some of the indicators used for measuring educational deprivation include key stage 2 attainment; key stage 3 attainment; key stage 4 attainment; absence rates for secondary education; higher education entry; adult skills; and continuing with education after 16 years. The following statistics point out the state of educational deprivation in Saint James:
Table 1: Key stage 1 evaluations of pupils attaining level 2 or above for 2010-2011
Table 2: students attaining at least 5 A* to C grade GCSEs
From the statistics, it is apparent that Saint James lags significantly with regard to aIDressing the indicators of educational deprivation. When compared to Northampton and England as a whole, it is apparent that the indicators of educational deprivation for Saint James are relatively high (Northampton County Council, 2010).
Barriers to Housing
The primary focus of this domain as a measure of deprivation outcomes is on the number of homeless individuals and other people living in housing facilities deemed unsatisfactory. Some of the indicators for housing deprivation include extent of homelessness, household overcrowding, affordability of housing, road distance to social facilities such as primary schools and supermarkets/convenience stores. The following are the indicators that will be used to assess the extent of the barriers to housing in Saint James (National Statistics, DCSF, and Land Registry, 2012).
From this statistics, it is evident that the level of housing deprivation in Saint James is relatively higher when compared to Oldham and England as a whole; this implies that Saint James is still lagging with regard to tackling issues contributing to higher housing barriers and the associated indicators of housing deprivation in the area. It is undeniable that the rates of overcrowding and dissatisfaction with accommodation are higher in Saint James, which simply translates that Saint James suffers from higher degrees of housing deprivation relative to other wards in Oldham and England as a whole; perhaps, the local government should adopt initiatives aimed at reducing the barriers to housing to be in line with the rates of England and Oldham as a whole (Northampton County Council, 2010).
This index measures national deprivation outcomes basing on indicators such as the types of violent offense committed, types of burglary offense, types of theft offense and types of criminal damage offenses. With regard to this model, the following indicators will be used to evaluate the extent of crime in Saint James (Northampton County Council, 2010):
From the indicators, a direct inference can be made that Saint James is not a safer place when compared to Oldham as a whole. This high crime rates can be attributed to other deprivation outcomes, particularly employment and education deprivation. Therefore, in order to reduce crime rates in Saint James, efforts should be directed at reducing income and education deprivation levels in the area.
Health deprivation measures the extent to which peoples quality of life has been impaired by either disability of poor health. There are a number of indicators that can be used to measure health deprivation; they include anxiety or mood disorders, acute morbidity, disability ratio, comparative illness and the lost years of potential life. In the line of this view, the following are the indicators that will be used to evaluate health deprivation in Saint James:
From this statistics, it is evident that health deprivation outcomes in Saint James are higher than national rate. It can be hypothesizes that there is a link between other deprivation indices such as education, income and employment and health deprivation. Just like for the case of crime, it can be inferred that tackling health deprivation issues requires first aIDressing other indices of deprivation in Saint James Area.
Living Environment Deprivation
Living environment deprivation comprises of two subcategories, which include the indoors living environment and the outdoor living environment. The indoor living environment sub-domain assesses the housing quality whereas outdoor living environment evaluates the quality of air and the prevalence of traffic accidents. Some of the indicators for measuring living environment include poor condition housing, housing that lacks central heating, air quality computed using the concentration of pollutants, and the prevalence of road accident. The economic activity of Saint James area is relatively low, which implies that the concentration of air pollutants is relatively low.
From the above community profile for Saint James area, it is apparent that the community scores dismally with regard to the variables of deprivation. There are several underlying issues that are the main causes of substantial deprivation in Saint James. This paper has highlighted these problems by reviewing factual data gathered through sub ward and ward information. Overall, it can be concluded that Saint James Area inclines towards being most deprived, particularly in terms of education, health, employment and income deprivation and crime.
National Statistics, DCSF, and Land Registry. (2012). UK Local Area. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.uklocalarea.com/index.php?q=St%20James&wc=34UFGS
Northampton County Council. (2010). English Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2010 and Northampton. Northampton.
Northamptonshire County Council. (2005). Northamptonshire profile. Northamptonshire: Northamptonshire County Council.
Northamptonshire Observatory. (2012). IMD 2010 Income Deprivation Affecting Older People Northamptonshire LSOAs in top 20% most deprived nationally. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.northamptonshireobservatory.org.uk/dataexplorer/dataset.asp?datasetid=1177&collectionid=119&theme=
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