Solution-Execute a study examining the influence of | Quick Homework Help

– Your assignment is to design and execute a study examining the influence of predation risk on other activities.

– Your study can be either experimental or observational, but it must examine the influence of one or more variables on behaviour.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Solution-Execute a study examining the influence of | Quick Homework Help
Get an essay WRITTEN FOR YOU, Plagiarism free, and by an EXPERT!
Order Essay

– The following project suggestions include e-periments that can be done using an aquarium or a terrarium, in your backyard, a nearby park, a woodlot, a stream, or, if you are lucky enough to live near it, the seashore.

– Each suggestion includes a brief e-planation of a tradeoff between avoiding predators and performing other activities, such as foraging, courtship, etc. Possible experimental manipulations and study organisms are suggested, and e-emplary studies are referenced.

– Feel free to modify any of these project suggestions or to devise your own experiments.

– Your study should be written as if it were a paper to be published in a journal-look at any of the papers you have read in this course for examples.

– Your paper will be evaluated according to the “Project Write-up Guide” that follows the “Project Suggestions” below. You should also refer back to the criteria that you used when you critiqued other papers to help yourself write a good paper.

Project Suggestions

– The effect of energy requirements on where to forage with respect to cover. The further an animal ranges from cover during feeding activities, the higher the predation risk it encounters. The animal should be willing to incur higher risks (by foraging at greater distances) when it has higher energy demands, such as when it is hungry. A possible e-perimental design would involve comparing how far birds (e.g., chickadees, towhees, juncos), rodents, or squirrels forage from cover (from trees or brush piles) after cold nights versus warm nights.

Grubb Jr., T. C., & Greenwald, L. (1982). Sparrows and a brush pile: Foraging responses to different combinations of predation risk and energy cost. Animal Behaviour, 30, 637-64.

– Vigilance (scanning for predators) before and after the appearance of a predator. Time spent watching for predators (being vigilant) increases an animal’s safety but decreases the time it has available for other activities. After a predator appears, animals should become more vigilant. A potential experimental design involves comparing the vigilance of animals at a feeder before and after introducing a predator (a human sitting nearby, or a cat or dog tethered nearby). (Note: Group size must be accounted for because vigilance will vary with group size.)

Gluck, E. (1987). An experimental study of feeding, vigilance and predator avoidance in a single bird. Oecologia, 71, 268-272.

– The effect of distance to safety on how close an animal allows an attacking predator to approach before feeding.

Fleeing sooner from an approaching predator increases the safety of an animal because it is more likely to reach a refuge before being captured.

However, the earlier the animal flees, the more time it loses for other activities (e.g., foraging). Various factors can influence this trade-off. For example, an animal should flee sooner when it is farther from cover.

Other factors that would influence this trade-off include quality of the food source, hunger level, and group size (for the dilution effect, see
Alcock). A potential e-perimental design would involve comparing chipmunks, tree squirrels, or birds fleeing to trees from a high- or low-quality food source in response to an approaching human.

Dill, L. M., & Houtman, R. (1989). The influence of distance to refuge on flight-initiation distance in the grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).
Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67, 232-235.

– Effect of foraging requirements on time to return to a food patch after fleeing a predator.

Animals often flee from predators to hiding places where they lose sight of the predator and cannot determine whether it has left or is waiting in ambush near the food patch. The cost of returning early is a high predation risk, because the predator is less likely to have left.

The benefit of returning early is less time lost for foraging-this benefit will increase with increasing hunger.

Potential experimental designs include:

a) Frightening birds from a feeder (e.g., by making a loud noise) and comparing their time to return after cold and warm nights;

b) Frightening squirrels from a food patch of high or low quality and comparing their times to return; and

c) Frightening hungry and well-fed fish from a drip-feeder to a refuge at the far end of an aquarium and comparing their return times.

Godin, J., & Sproul, C. D. (1988). Risk taking in parasitized sticklebacks under threat of predation: Effects of energetic need and food availability. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 66, 2360-2367.

Quick Homework Essays
Calculate your paper price
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.


Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.


Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.


Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.


Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.