1. The three major domains of life are
archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes.
plants, animals, and protists.
eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and animals.
eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and fungi.
bacteria, fungi, and eukaryotes.
2. Organic molecules
always contain hydrogen.
are always food molecules.
are found only in organisms, hence their name.
always contain carbon.
always contain carbon and hydrogen.
3. Which of the following structures are NOT found in the cytoplasm?
4. The nucleolus
contains DNA and is found in the cytoplasm.
contains RNA and is found in the nucleus.
contains DNA and is found in the nucleus.
contains ribosome subunits and is found in the cytoplasm.
contains RNA and is found in the cytoplasm.
5. Some students consume large amounts of coffee and so-called energy drinks to help them stay alert when studying. You notice that many who engage in this practice seem to do poorly on exams. Suppose you want to investigate the relationship between caffeine consumption and exam performance. Which of the following statements would be an appropriate hypothesis?
Students who consume large amounts of caffeine while studying will have lower exam scores than those who consume less caffeine.
Many students consume large amounts of caffeine while studying.
Caffeine increases alertness but also increases anxiety.
One should avoid consuming too much caffeine while studying.
Too much caffeine is harmful to your health.
6. When a substance moves from an area of low concentration to an area of high concentration while using energy, the process is termed
7. Which of the following is a prokaryotic cell?
8. Both plant and animal cells have mitochondria because they both
have a large central vacuole.
need ATP for energy.
have lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes.
carry on photosynthesis.
have endoplasmic reticulum.
9. Two molecules of glucose combine to form a disaccharide molecule during a(n) ________ reaction.
10. Which of the following types of lipid is the most abundant constituent of cell membranes?
11. Compared with a eukaryotic cell, a prokaryotic cell
has no method of movement.
lacks organelles beyond ribosomes.
does not require energy.
is not living.
12. The backbone of a nucleic acid strand is composed of
alternating pentose sugars and phosphate groups.
alternating adenines and thymines.
13. Which nutrient source is the easiest one for humans to breakdown and form ATP?
14. Ribosomes are composed of
RNA and protein.
DNA and protein.
DNA and RNA.
15. DNA codes for the sequence of amino acids in the primary structure of a protein, but not for sugars or lipids. This is because
sugars and lipids are ever present in the living environment and are not used in living structures.
sugars and lipids code for their own replication.
other hereditary molecules code for sugars and lipids.
only proteins are involved in living metabolic reactions.
proteins are the main structural and functional components of cells.
16. The final shape of a protein is very important to its function. When proteins undergo an irreversible change in shape called ________________ they ________________ perform their usual functions.
17. Which answer choice lists the steps of the scientific method in the correct order?
observation, experiment, hypothesis, conclusion, scientific theory
conclusion, hypothesis, observation, experiment, scientific theory
scientific theory, conclusion, hypothesis, experiment, observation
hypothesis, observation, experiment, conclusion, scientific theory
observation, hypothesis, experiment, conclusion, scientific theory
18. Which of these is present in plant, but not animal, cells?
19. Hemoglobin is a protein composed of two pairs of polypeptide chains. What is the highest level of protein structure represented in hemoglobin?
20. Mitochondria are bounded by a double membrane. The inner filled space is called the matrix which contains ______________ that break down carbohydrate products, releasing _______________ to be used for ATP production.
21. Macrophages, a type of white blood cells, are able to remove bacteria from our bloodstream and tissues by
22. The ____ will store pigments and toxins in plant cells.
23. All carbohydrate molecules
are organic acids.
are composed of atoms of C, H, and the functional group -OH.
contain nitrogen and phosphate.
contain amino acids.
are composed of atoms of C, H, O, and N.
24. When a lysosome fuses with a vacuole,
protein synthesis begins.
they both return to the Golgi apparatus.
they both disappear.
its contents are digested.
25. If a new anti-cancer drug is found effective in initial tests with mice, what do researchers conclude?
The drug is effective in the mouse model; it must still be tested in humans.
The effect of the drug on mice has no bearing on the effect of the drug on humans.
The mice have provided a positive control in this experiment that proves the drug is effective in humans.
If the drug was effective in a small proportion of mice, it will be effective in a small proportion of humans.
If the drug was effective in a large number of mice, it will therefore be effective in humans.
26. Certain individuals with a Y chromosome develop into females because testosterone is not able to induce the formation of male sexual characteristics. This is most likely due to a defect in
the Y chromosome
the transduction pathway
the signaling molecule
the target protein
27. Which statement concerning reproduction is false?
The offspring of asexual organisms have the same genes as the single parent.
Hereditary information is passed on to the next generation.
The offspring of sexual organisms have roughly one half of the genes from each parent.
Hereditary information is in the form of genes.
The offspring of multicellular organisms tend to be identical to the parent.
28. Carrier molecules are required for
both facilitated diffusion AND active transport.
both osmosis AND diffusion.
29. If a cell lacked ribosomes, it would NOT be able to
form a spindle apparatus.
form a Golgi vesicle.
30. Which of these combinations would be found in a nucleotide?
31. Which function does the lipid bilayer component of the plasma membrane NOT provide for the cell?
provides a fluid and flexible boundary that insulates the interior from the variations in humidity, food, and other external conditions
provides a matrix for the placement of proteins that regulate the exchange of molecules between the inside and outside of the cell
controls the exchange of molecules between one cell and adjacent cells or the environment
defines a permeable boundary between the organized interior and the chaotic external environment
provides an impermeable, self-sealing membrane that keeps all internal living processes sealed inside
32. You are conducting an experiment to determine what concentration of disinfectant is most effective in killing bacteria. In this example, the concentration of disinfectant would represent the
33. Enzymes are organic compounds classified as
34. According to cell theory
new cells arise only from preexisting cells.
a multicellular organism is composed of many cells.
the smallest unit of life is a nucleus.
all organisms are composed of tissues.
animals but not plants are composed of cells.
35. A researcher samples the waters of the boiling hot springs in Yellowstone National Park. Under the microscope, she observes what appear to be living cells in the water. If these indeed are living cells, what type of cell would they most likely be?
36. Which statement is false regarding science?
Correct scientific conclusions are permanent and never subject to change or refinement.
Science helps us to understand the natural world.
Information is gained by observing and testing.
Information is gathered by scientific methods.
Science strives to be objective rather than subjective.
37. Which of the following factors could cause the cell membrane to become less permeable?
If the channel proteins were to denature and become inactive.
If the size of the protein channel was to increase.
If the molecules trying to enter the cell were decreased in size.
If the hydrophilic head of the phospholipids were to become hydrophobic while the hydrophobic tails become hydrophilic.
All of these choices would cause the cell membrane to become less permeable.
38. What type of bond will connect the amino acids in a protein?
39. Which sequence correctly lists the different levels of biological organization, from the smallest and simplest to the largest and most complex?
40. ____ is a polysaccharide that is found in plant cell walls and accounts for their strength.
41. The primary function of carbohydrates is
to transport molecules across cell membranes.
encoding the hereditary information.
to speed chemical reactions in cells.
quick fuel and short-term energy storage.
structural reinforcement of plant and fungal cell walls.
42. According to the fluid-mosaic model of membrane structure,
proteins float inside or within the phospholipid bilayer.
glycolipids form a mosaic pattern inside the cell.
only lipids are found in the membrane.
cholesterol is the main constituent of the membrane.
proteins make up the bulk of the membrane.
43. During photosynthesis, solar energy is converted to chemical energy by the chloroplasts. The process is represented by:
carbohydrate + carbon dioxide = oxygen + water + energy
carbohydrate + oxygen = carbon dioxide + water + energy
solar energy + carbon dioxide + water = carbohydrate + oxygen
solar energy + oxygen + water = carbohydrate + oxygen
solar energy = carbohydrate + oxygen
44. If a cell lacks ATP, which of the following processes would cease to operate immediately?
45. Which cellular structure is responsible for packaging materials with the cell?
46. Which of the following molecules aID stiffness and strength to the plasma membrane?
47. Which of the following refers to materials only leaving the cell?
48. Which nuclear structure(s) contain(s) the hereditary material?
49. The number of mitochondria in a cell would be a general indicator of the extent of
both osmosis and diffusion.
50. The bones in a bird are hollow, reducing its weight for flight. This is an example of which characteristic of life?
Living things are homeostatic.
Living things reproduce.
Living things acquire materials and energy from the environment.
Living things grow and develop.
Living things are adapted.
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